The Closing Process Accounting

Closing Entries

Like revenue, expense, and withdrawal/dividends to permanent ledger accounts. Gray, Capital1,060.00For partnerships, each partners’ capital account will be credited based on the agreement of the partnership (for example, 50% to Partner A, 30% to B, and 20% to C). For corporations, Income Summary is closed entirely to “Retained Earnings”. The Income Summary balance is ultimately closed to the capital account.

  • Revenue and expense accounts are closed to Income Summary, and Income Summary and Dividends are closed to the permanent account, Retained Earnings.
  • (These accounts will have a creditbalance in the general ledger prior to the closing entry.) Credit an account called “income summary” for the total.
  • The balance of the revenue account is cleared by applying a debit to the revenue account and an equivalent credit to the income summary account.
  • This will be performed through crediting the expense accounts, debiting the income summary, and in turn, closing the income summary account and crediting the permanent retained earnings account.
  • This entry effectively transfers the net income of the business to the owner’s equity account.
  • The permanent account records the balances over multiple accounting periods.

If a company’s revenues are greater than its expenses, the closing entry entails debiting income summary and crediting retained earnings. In the event of a loss for the period, the income summary account needs to be credited and retained earnings reduced through a debit. As mentioned, temporary accounts in the general ledger consist of income statement accounts such as sales or expense accounts. When the income statement is published at the end of the year, the balances of these accounts are transferred to the income summary, which is also a temporary account.

Close The Income Summary Account

You need to create closing journal entries by debiting and crediting the right accounts. Use the chart below to determine which accounts are decreased by debits and which are decreased by credits. At the end of the cycle, accountants zero out the temporary accounts to prepare for the next accounting cycle. After closing, the balance of Expenses will be zero and the account will be ready for the expenses of the next accounting period.

  • ParticularsDebitCreditDec31Service Revenue9,850.00Income Summary9,850.00In the given data, there is only 1 income account, i.e.
  • Having a zero balance in these accounts is important so a company can compare performance across periods, particularly with income.
  • The above quotations are among the closing entries of the old writer.
  • By doing so, companies move the temporary account balances to the permanent accounts of the balance sheet.
  • To do this, their balances are emptied into the income summary account.
  • The process transfers these temporary account balances to permanent entries on the company’s balance sheet.

‘Total expenses‘ account is credited to record the closing entry for expense accounts. The four-step method described above works well because it provides a clear audit trail. For smaller businesses, it might make sense to bypass the income summary account and instead close temporary entries directly to the retained earnings account. Closing the revenue accounts—transferring the credit balances in the revenue accounts to a clearing account called Income Summary. $5,000After this, Matty P’s books are ready for the next accounting period. Of course, this process assumes that closing journal entries are made manually.


Upon completion of an accounting period, accountants calculate a total balance for all accounts. Once the closing entries have been posted, the trial balance calculation is performed to help detect any errors that may have occurred in the closing process. If your business is a corporation, you will not have a drawing account, but if you paid stockholders, you will have a dividends account. If you paid dividends for the month, you will need to close that account as well. As an another example, you should shift any balance in the dividends paid account to the retained earnings account, which reduces the balance in the retained earnings account.

Direct Method – the net income or loss and Drawing account are closed directly to the Capital account. Indirect Method – the net income or loss is closed to the Drawing account, aer which the Drawing account is closed to the Capital account.

  • These accounts are closed directly to retained earnings by recording a credit to the dividend account and a debit to retained earnings.
  • Of ₹ 5,00,000, which needs to be credited and then directly debiting the retained earnings account.
  • The transfer of all revenue accounts into the income summary- this entails a debit on revenue accounts and a credit on the income summary.
  • Companies use closing entries to reset the balances of temporary accounts − accounts that show balances over a single accounting period − to zero.
  • Closing an account to retained earnings is a faster process than closing to income summaries because it skips the closing temporary accounts step.
  • The information featured in this article is based on our best estimates of pricing, package details, contract stipulations, and service available at the time of writing.
  • Here we see that total expenses for both were $9,650 for January 2020.

This could prove problematic at tax time or if the business seeks outside financing. Temporary accounts, also referred to as nominal accounts or income statement accounts, start each accounting period with a balance of zero.

See For Yourself How Easy Our Accounting Software Is To Use!

If dividends were not declared, closing entries would cease at this point. If dividends are declared, to get a zero balance in the Dividends account, the entry will show a credit to Dividends and a debit to Retained Earnings. As you will learn inCorporation Accounting, there are three components to the declaration and payment of dividends. The first part is the date of declaration, which creates the obligation or liability to pay the dividend. The second part is the date of record that determines who receives the dividends, and the third part is the date of payment, which is the date that payments are made.

Closing Entries

All of these entries have emptied the revenue, expense, and income summary accounts, and shifted the net profit for the period to the retained earnings account. Close the income summary account to the retained earnings account.

Journalizing And Posting Closing Entries

The total of the income summary account after the all temporary accounts have been close should be equal to the net income for the period. Are income statement accounts that are used to track accounting activity during an accounting period. For example, the revenues account records the amount of revenues earned during an accounting period—not during the life of the company. We don’t want the 2015 revenue account to show 2014 revenue numbers. Income summary effectively collects NI for the period and distributes the amount to be retained into retained earnings. Balances from temporary accounts are shifted to the income summary account first to leave an audit trail for accountants to follow. Clear the balance of the expense accounts by debiting income summary and crediting the corresponding expenses.

Closing Entries

The third entry closes the Income Summary account to Retained Earnings. The fourth entry closes the Dividends account to Retained Earnings. The information needed to prepare closing entries comes from the adjusted trial balance. Closing expense accounts is the transfer of the debit balances in a company’s expense account to the income summary. This includes expenses in the accounts, such as rent, interest and salary. Accountants transfer these funds by crediting the expense account and debiting the income summary. Moving balances to an income summary helps accountants create an audit trail to follow.

Step 2

You see that you earned $120,000 this year in revenue and had expenses for rent, electricity, cable, internet, gas, and food that totaled $70,000. After closing, the dividend account will have a zero balance and be ready for the next period’s dividend payments. Permanent accounts are accounts that track activities extending over multiple accounting periods.

Closing Entries

The post-closing T-accounts will be transferred to the post-closing trial balance, which is step 9 in the accounting cycle. Closing dividends accounts are where accountants transfer debit balances from the dividends account to the retained earning account, or permanent account.

Closing entries, also called closing journal entries, are entries made at the end of an accounting period to zero out all temporary accounts and transfer their balances to permanent accounts. In other words, the temporary accounts are closed or reset at the end of the year. Accountants may perform the closing process monthly or annually. The closing entries are the journal entry form of the Statement of Retained Earnings. When total expenses are deducted from total revenues on the income summary, the resulting amount is either a gain or a loss for the business. For example, if the business had $100,000 in expenses and $150,000 in revenues, the business had a gain of $50,000.

The closing entries reset the balances of these temporary accounts to zero. Here Bob needs to debit retained earnings account and credit dividends account. Here we need to debit retained earnings account and credit dividends account. It’s important to note that neither the drawing nor the dividends accounts need to be transferred to the income summary account. This process resets both the income and expense accounts to zero, preparing them for the next accounting period. Having an intermediate income summary account proves helpful to the accountant here as it provides a trail of accounting closing entries for each financial transaction. Temporary AccountTemporary accounts are nominal accounts that start with zero balance at the beginning of the financial year.

All temporary accounts must be reset to zero at the end of the accounting period. To do this, their balances are emptied into the income summary account. The income summary account then transfers the net balance of all the temporary accounts to retained earnings, which is a permanent account on the balance sheet. If income summary account has a debit balance, it means the business has suffered a loss during the period which causes a decrease in retained earnings. In such a situation, the income summary account is closed by debiting retained earnings account and crediting income summary account.

The closing process reduces revenue, expense, and dividends account balances to zero so they are ready to receive data for the next accounting period. Each business expense account is closed at the end of the accounting year.

Example Of Closing Entries

This includes accounts such as rent, advertising, insurance, utilities and other expense accounts used throughout the accounting year. All expense accounts are closed with a credit and the sum of all the expense accounts is debited to the income summary. Revenues generated within the accounting period are closed out at the end of the accounting cycle. Sales, gains from investments and additional infusions of capital are all considered revenue.

What Is The Closing Entry Process?

A closing entry is a journal entry that is made at the end of an accounting period to transfer balances from a temporary account to a permanent account. Closing Entries At the end of an accounting period when the books of accounts are at finalization stage, some special journal entries are required to be passed.